The Group of Companies Doctrine as a Non-Signatory Issue in Arbitration Agreements

ABSTRACT The issue of non-signatories is a significant point of international arbitration. As one of the non-signatories, the Group of Companies Doctrine can be defined as companies which are the parts of an integrated economic group being bound by one another’s arbitration agreements in some circumstances. Despite the clear definition regarding the doctrine, it is…

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Comparison of the Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) with Litigation for Internet Related Disputes

ABSTRACT The issue of non-signatories is a significant point of international arbitration. As one of the non-signatories, the Group of Companies Doctrine can be defined as companies which are the parts of an integrated economic group being bound by one another’s arbitration agreements in some circumstances. Despite the clear definition regarding the doctrine, it is…

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E-Commerce Transaction Law: Value Of Online Identifıcation In Comparison With Electronic Signatures

Introduction With the emergence of information and communication technologies, Internet has become a crucial part of the digital relations which allowed individuals to make contact with each other without any physical interaction. Under these circumstances, the nature of the transactions had changed and transferred into the electronic world which gave rise to new business methods…

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Extraterritorial Enforcement Defined In Article 3(2) Of The GDPR: How Effective?

Introduction Majority of the processing of personal data is now subject to the Internet which eventually resulted in a disconnection from territorial scope of the data. In this respect, expanding the regional application of the data protection regulations has become inevitable. Extraterritorial jurisdiction of the GDPR and its enforcement is a case in the point.…

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